If you look up the verb “to animate” in the dictionary, you find two definitions in the Oxford dictionary:
to animate something or someone means to give (a film or character) the appearance of movement using animation techniques.
But the second definition might sound more lively:
describe the action as the capacity to bring to life.
To portray the mentioned “appearance of movement”, we need to create a sequence of images -drawn, painted, or produced by other artistic methods- that slightly differ from one another. The chronological display of the previous images will produce the illusion of shape change and motion.
Take a look at the following 2d animation break-down to get a whole idea of the 2d animation production process:
Let’s bust one old and common myth about 2d animation first!
2D animation is a versatile medium that’s finding its way in every kind of entertainment and media these days. Whether in TV shows, indie video games, feature films, advertisements, mobile apps, and websites, 2d animation is here to stay.
Just take a look at shows like “Rick and Morty” and you’ll immediately realize how the combination of a good story and well-developed 2-dimensional animated video is what wins the game. Just type into your browser “2d animation studios” and see how many great and world-renowned animation studios have highly acclaimed works in 2d animation.
We’re well aware that when it comes to such a diverse medium like 2d animation, people tend to have so many questions that are left unanswered.
Here you can find everything you need to know about 2d, traditional, or hand-drawn classic animation, how it is made and how you can be a 2d animation artist, and other useful information that might help you become a better 2d animator. If you have any other questions that are not covered here, feel free to drop us a question in the comments section and we’ll come up with a complete answer. Ok, enough talking, let’s start the adventure!
What is 2d animation?
The first thing you should know is why we call this 2d animation (or you know, two-dimensional). That’s because the width and height are the two only variables and dimensional elements. Ok, technical stuff aside, when we combine different pictures of different heights and widths together. Creating an illusion of movement, a 2d animation is created.
What are different types of 2d animation?
Different people have come up with various ways of breaking down types of 2d animation, but in the most basic way, animation comes down to 2 categories:
Traditional 2d animation
Traditional animation (also known as hand-drawn animation or classical animation) is an animation technique where all the frames used to create the illusion of motion are first drawn on paper and, consequently, done by hand.
Modern 2d animation
Unlike the traditional method, modern 2d animation is all about computers and their ability to take things farther when it comes to creating an animation. Along with that, different 2d animation software is developed which gives the option of creating characters, backgrounds, and animation them all together.
Check out our animation series studio page to get a feel of how modern animation is practiced in real life.
What is the difference between 2d and 3d animation?
Animation workflow or pipeline is a system consisting of people, hardware, and software aligned to work in a specific sequential order to do pre-determined tasks in a pre-determined time frame, which will lead to a 3D animation product or asset as the final output. The only difference between 2d and 3d pipeline is the final output with some regards to different stages of production.
For example in 3d animation pipeline, we have different stages such as rendering, 3d modeling, texturing. However, in 2d pipeline, these are mostly done by artists. If you want to know more about the workflow of 3d animation, check out our guide on the animation production process.
What are different types of 2d animation?
Sometimes, we’re not only making 2d animation for the sake of entertainment. Versatility and low cost of production and high engagement rates are among the reasons why a lot of marketing and branding videos are done in 2d. Let’s take a look at the different uses of this kind of animation in the realm of marketing.
- Computer animation
Computer animation, also called CGI animation, is the technique used by generating animated images with computer graphics. Computer animation is broken down into two categories. Computer-assisted animation is when traditional animations are computerized. On the other hand, computer-generated animation is the one designed solely on the computer system using animation and 3D graphics software.
- Stop Motion
Stop motion animation -or stop-frame animation- is a cinematic process or technique used to make real-world objects appear as if they were moving. Those objects are physically manipulated and photographed every time after being moved between frames. When the sequence of images is displayed rapidly, the objects are “brought to life”.
- Motion Graphics
Sometimes brands don’t need a character or story-driven animation. Instead, they just want to use graphics and text for animated logos, explainers, and titles. In this case, motion graphics are a perfect choice. The skills required to create motion graphics are different from those required for other types of animation as motion graphics don’t require a knowledge of body mechanics or acting. One of the key services of Commercial animation studios is motion graphics for product videos.
- Whiteboard animation
Whiteboard animation consists of simulating black-line graphics being drawn on a white background, illustrating the concepts or ideas in play. The popularity of these types of videos lies in their effectiveness, as the dynamic graphics and animations do a great job of delivering complex messages while keeping the audience engaged. Using a streamlined style that results in a straightforward and to-the-point finish.
If you have a great deal of information on hand and a short amount of time, animated slides or infographic animations are a great way to do both. Complex subjects and descriptions that need illustrations and graphs are also what infographics shine.
Now, let’s learn more about how 2D animation is created. The process consists of 3 main phases: pre-production, production, and post-production. Let’s see what’s included in each of them.
What is 2d animation workflow?
Now we’re going to explain and break down the workflow of 2d animation. However, it’s worth mentioning that every animated movie has been made in a different way, with different techniques and devices. There is no “correct” or “unique” way to animate and the steps explained below aren’t always followed in the same order.
What we’re talking about here is just the 2d animation production process that is largely practiced in big animation studios (Disney, Dreamworks, Ghibli, etc.)
2d animation production process (from beginners to advanced)
In order for you to digest the content more easily, we try to be as specific as we can. we have broken down the production process of 2d animation into 3 parts:
Each of these stages consists of different mini-stages that are the building blocks of a complete animated work.
What is pre-production in the 2d animation production process?
1. Finding inspiration
To make an animated movie (or any movie in general) you need to think of a story first. However, trying to come up with a good story can be really difficult sometimes. The story is the most important part of any animated movie. If the animation isn’t the best but the story is great, you have a good movie; but when it’s the other way around, then the movie is worthless.
To come up with a good story you need to find inspiration. How can you do that? You just have to observe what is around you. Inspiration can come from everywhere, a movie, a song, a poem Use anything from your own life to get inspired. Any person you’ve ever met, any place you’ve ever been to, any experience you’ve ever had might make all the ideas in your head click and create a story.
2. Developing an idea
It’s now time the director and producer(s) get together and think of the changes we want to add to the story we have chosen to animate. We propose different ways to add depth to it, the message we want to transmit, the main plot, etc. We try to make them more complex and appealing to the contemporary audience.
3. Finalizing the script
In this stage, all the dialogues of the animation are written. When writing, it is important to take into account the audience of the animation is going to be addressed. It’s worth mentioning The script evolves a lot during the creation of the movie, it changes many times until we get the final one.
4. Scheduling the production
Just like the way you prepare your suitcase before a trip and make sure you have all you need to make the journey, in the same way, you need to plan ahead when and how you’re going to start producing your animation project. Although it can sound very boring, it is essential to organize the project and prepare everything before starting to animate. Some of the things that are worth planning are:
- Delivery date
- Preliminary data
- Crew plan
What is production in 2d animation workflow?
Once all the scheduling is done, we start designing the characters and backgrounds for the animation which comes down to two sub-categories:
- Character designing
When it comes to designing characters, everyone contributes with their ideas. Every animator takes a pencil and a paper and they start sketching different designs of the characters over and over again. Finally, they come up with a reasonable character design that all the team is into. Sometimes artists outsource this stage to character design studios that are able to deliver fast and reliable assets for their projects.
one of the most important aspects of creating a character is the visual
- Location designing
Animators also have to design the backgrounds of the movie, even if it is just the bedroom of the main character, a school class, or a whole village, everything must be planned. When designing backgrounds, they sometimes use photographs they had taken during the research process. Other times, they just draw from their imagination.
6. Composing the theme songs (optional)
This part of the process consists of composing the songs that are going to be sung by the characters. This step is only applicable when talking about a musical film, not every animated movie has sung in it. When composing, musicians tend to add easy and catchy songs so that people remember the lyrics and they get stuck in their heads. Just take a look at some of the best Pixar movies like COCO in which a type of song is sung by the characters.
Storyboards are sketches similar to comic books that follow the action of the script and show how the characters will move in every scene. To plan the storyboard, animators use a bar sheet to
organize the scenes. A bar sheet (or exposure sheet) is a table that contains the breakdown of the action, dialogue, and sound of every sequence.
It determines exactly which posses, drawings, and movements animators will have to draw later. It is organized in a similar way as a music pentagram and it is usually smaller than an A4 paper. Once the bar sheet is completed, storyboard artists begin to draw everything.
Storyboards don’t have to be as clean as the final animation, they are just rough sketches. The character’s features don’t have to be very exact either. However, there are storyboards that are very well elaborated and even colored. It depends on
the artist who draws it.
8. Concept art
In doing concept art, We develop the style, tone, color, and overall artistic approach to each and every sequence.
Concept art will not be in any part of the movie, it just helps the animators to get inspired and know how the movie will finally look. Everything has to be designed, from the major characters to the smallest of props. They make thousands and thousands of drawings, paintings, blueprints, sculptures, and models to design everything.
9. Voice recording
When the concept art is already finished, it is time to record the voices of the characters. This process can be divided into three steps: casting, character presentation, and recording.
This is when animation truly begins. All the storyboards and the planning is done so now it’s time to let the animators do magic. Animators are divided into two groups, the key animators (or main animators) and the inbetweeners.
- Key animators
Every character is assigned to one main animator, usually, the one who designed them, that will draw all the scenes where the mentioned character appears. Key animators draw the frames that have the essential poses of the characters without taking into account the fluidness of the movement.
- Tweening artists (Inbetweeners)
The inbetweeners are the animators that receive the mainframes the key animator has created and fill them with more frames to make the movement flow and
look real. The average number of frames a second has to contain is 24 f/s.
This procedure of filling the mainframes is called tweening
They have to keep in mind that the characters must do simple human things like breathing and blinking, etc. They have to give them the feeling of having flesh and bones. Tweening is also a difficult process because everything has to look the same, unified.
To see if there is any mistake in their animation, they put all the drawings together in a videotape called a pencil test. It is a preliminary version of the final animated scene, sometimes they even add the dialogues to see if the lip-sync is
What is post-production in 2d animation steps?
11. Inking and coloring
When all the scenes have been animated, they are taken to the inking department. That is where they pass the pencil sketches into celluloid. Celluloid is a thin, clear sheet of transparent plastic. There, they ink or photocopy the outline of the drawing onto a cel, depending on if they are doing it traditionally or digitally.
Originally everyone inked the sketches by hand, and they could spend a lot of hours with just one of them. Luckily, with the invention of the computer, the process has become a lot faster and easier.
Take a look at our comprehensive guide on character colors as choosing a color palette is one of the most important aspects of designing characters for your project.
The backgrounds are the sets where the action of each animated sequence takes place. As well as the previous step, they can be done by computer or by hand. Traditionally painted drawings are usually made with gouache or acrylic paint, though some animated productions also use watercolor and oil paint.
13. Visual effects
Sometimes, a sequence requires some type of animation that would be very difficult to do by hand and that is when we use computer effects. They are used for many different things. Animators use the computer when they need to animate a scene with a huge crowd or with some kind of magic effect or fire on them.
By animating the background characters with a computer, we are able to save extra work and time. Using the computer, animators change the angle of the camera, edit possible mistakes, correct the lighting, the speed of movement, the atmosphere of scenes, etc. They give the final look to the movie. They also use the computer to add the initial and ending credit.
14. Sound design
This is the last part of the animation process. The sound designers create and record sound effects and ambiance (footsteps, clothes rustling, doors opening,…) to create the textures and layers of sound that enrich the story. Nowadays they are created digitally but at the beginning of the animation, sound designers had to make the sounds they needed themselves. In Snow White, they recorded the sounds of broken dishes, animals, doors knocking, etc. because they didn’t have another way to do it.
After that, the background music is composed. Background music reflects the way the main character is feeling at the moment. That is why, depending on the type of scene, the music will be fast or slow-paced.
Then, the dialogues recorded before are added making them coincide with the lip movement of the characters. Finally, the dialogue, music, and sound effects are assembled on the sound
mixing stage. They add audio levels, equalization, perspective, and treatments (Echo, TV, or radio sound…) as tracks, and they are mixed into the final version of the movie.
Now that you know everything about the 2d animation production process, head over to our in-depth guide on the CGI animation pipeline.